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Bioenergy

Biogas in Kenya   is widely   produced with over 8000 biogas plants utilizing various raw materials e.g.  agricultural wastes, slaughterhouse waste, municipal wastes e.t.c .However  the situation  is amorphous   in the sense   that  there  is no consolidated  data  on biogas production making it a challenge in determining the country’s overall capacity.

Installed biomass capacity

2.00MW

Biogas

Biogas in Kenya   is widely   produced with over 8000 biogas plants utilizing various raw materials e.g.  agricultural wastes, slaughterhouse waste, municipal wastes etc. However  the situation  is amorphous   in the sense   that  there  is no consolidated  data  on biogas production making it a challenge in determining the country’s overall capacity.

Biogas potential in Kenya has been identified in Municipal waste, sisal and coffee production. The total installed electric capacity potential of all sources ranges from 29-131MW, which is about 3.2 to 16.4% of the total electricity production. The table below depicts the various sources and their electricity production potential.

Table: Biogas Energy Potential

SourceEnergy Potential (GWh)
Coffee12.6 -147.6
Chicken5.8 - 24.7
Cut flowers2.4 - 7.6
Tea2.7- 7.8
Sisal65.4 - 284.3
Sugar18.6 - 42.8
Milk1.4 - 7.2
Pineapple9.6 - 26.6
Municipal waste80.6 - 512.6
Distillery1.8 - 14.9
Meat0.09 - 0.6
Pig1.6 - 3.8
Vegetable0.02 - 0.2

The biogas standards are currently being determined to pave way for the formulation of the relevant legislation. The future of biogas in Kenya is bright with a potential of over 1000 MW.

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Biomass

Bio-energy is the energy derived from various sources of solids, liquids and gaseous biomass, including fuel wood, charcoal, ethanol, bio-diesel and biogas. Biomass contribution to Kenya’s final energy demand is 70 per cent and provides for more than 90 per cent of rural household energy needs. The main sources of biomass for Kenya include charcoal, wood-fuel and agricultural waste. The Government has identified the existence of a substantial potential for power generation using forestry and agro-industry residues including bagasse. The total potential for cogeneration using sugarcane bagasse is 193MW. Mumias Sugar Company (Independent Power Producer) generates 35MW out of which 26MW is dispatched to the grid. However, opportunities within other sugar factories estimated to be up to 300 MW have not been exploited.

The FiT policy provides for biomass energy resource generated electricity with a firm power fixed tariff not exceeding US Cents 10 per Kilowatt-hour of electrical energy supplied in bulk to the grid operator at the interconnection point. Under this policy, 18MW cogeneration project for use of cane bagasse at the coastal region of Kenya has been approved.

Currently, biomass energy development is the focus of attention due to dwindling global resources of fossil fuels and rising prices. Their potential to mitigate climate change adds their attractiveness. Consumption stood at 1.4 and 3.3 million litres of petrol and automotive diesel respectively per day in 2006 with average growth rate of 2.8% per year. Projections indicate that Kenya will require 2.7 and 6.5 million litres of petrol and automotive diesel respectively per day by 2030. Currently, Kenya would require 77 million litres of ethanol per year for a national 10% (E10) blend at current consumption levels. This will need to grow to 148 million litres by 2030. A national B2 would require about 28 million litres of bio-diesel at current consumption levels and would be required to grow to 50 million litres by 2030.

Opportunities in production and processing of Jatropha and sweet sorghum into bio-fuel exist in Galana and other areas of the country such as Eastern, North-Eastern, Rift-Valley and Nyanza Provinces. In addition, consultancy opportunities exist in research work and capacity building in bio-technology and relate industrial potential for production of biofuel.